Vol. 33 No. 2 (2018)
Research Articles

The Effective Affect: A Scoping Review of Social Presence

David Mykota
University of Saskatchewan
Bio
Published December 27, 2018
Keywords
  • evidence synthesis,
  • higher education,
  • literature review,
  • online learning,
  • scoping review,
  • social presence.
  • ...More
    Less
How to Cite
Mykota, D. (2018). The Effective Affect: A Scoping Review of Social Presence. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education / Revue Internationale Du E-Learning Et La Formation à Distance, 33(2). Retrieved from https://www.ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/1080

Abstract

This paper reports the findings of a scoping review of the construct social presence. The methodology follows the design for scoping reviews as advocated by Arksey and O’Malley (2005). A scoping study is desirable because by synthesizing the research literature the opportunity to identify practical guidelines for the development of social presence is facilitated. A two-stage screening process resulted in 105 studies identified for inclusion with data extracted using a standardized form. A descriptive numerical analysis and qualitative content analysis for those studies included was undertaken. Results from the manuscripts screened for inclusion and synthesized from the data extracted in the scoping review, provide strategies for the structuring of social presence; the potential benefits of effective affective communication in an online environ; and an overview of the evolution of the construct social presence. Future research that aggregates research findings on social presence is desirable so as to ascertain how the development, design, and instruction of online learning moderates the effects of social presence on student outcomes. As well, future comparative research that considers course enrollment, length of course, course level and discipline is also recommended so as to determine what social presence practices are situation specific and what social presence practices can be generalized to all online learning environments.

Résumé

Cet article fait état des résultats d’une étude de la portée de la présence sociale construite. La méthodologie suit la démarche des études de la portée (scoping reviews) préconisée par Arksey et O’Malley (2005). Une étude de la portée est souhaitable dans la mesure où la synthèse de la littérature favorise l’identification de directives pratiques permettant le développement de la présence sociale. Un processus de sélection en deux étapes a permis d’identifier 105 études à prendre en compte, dont les données ont été relevées dans une grille standardisée. Une analyse descriptive numérique ainsi qu’une analyse qualitative de contenu de ces études ont été entreprises. Les résultats émergeant des analyses des manuscrits sélectionnés et des données relevées dans l’étude de la portée fournissent des stratégies de structuration de la présence sociale, mettent en relief les bénéfices potentiels d’une communication affective efficace dans un environnement en ligne et une vue d’ensemble de l’évolution de la présence sociale construite. A l’avenir, une recherche agrégeant les résultats de recherche sur la présence sociale serait souhaitable pour s’assurer de la manière dont le développement, la conception et l’administration de l’apprentissage en ligne influencent les effets de la présence sociale sur les résultats des étudiants. De même, une recherche comparative prenant en compte l’engagement dans le cours, la durée du cours, le niveau et la discipline du cours serait également à recommander pour déterminer quelles pratiques de présence sociale sont propres à des situations particulières et quelles pratiques de présence sociale sont davantage généralisables à tous les environnements en ligne.

Mots clés : synthèse de preuves, enseignement supérieur, revue de littérature, apprentissage en ligne, étude de la portée, présence sociale.

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