Vol. 31 No. 1 (2016)
Research Articles

The 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in Predicting Online Student Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

Yan Yang
University of West Georgia
Jeff Taylor
University of West Georgia
Li Cao
University of West Georgia

Published 2016-08-01


  • 3×2 achievement goal model,
  • self-efficacy,
  • test anxiety,
  • help-seeking,
  • online learning

How to Cite

Yang, Y., Taylor, J., & Cao, L. (2016). The 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in Predicting Online Student Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education Revue Internationale Du E-Learning Et La Formation à Distance, 31(1). Retrieved from https://www.ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/914


This study investigates the utility of the new 3 × 2 achievement goal model in predicting online student test anxiety and help-seeking. Achievement goals refer to students’ general aims for participating in learning and the standard by which they judge their achievement (Pintrich, 2000). According to Elliot and his colleagues (2011), there are six types of achievement goals based on three dimensions of competence (self-, task-, and other-) and two dimensions of valence (approach and avoidance). The sample included 209 students enrolled in distance education classes who volunteered for the study. Separate hierarchical regression was employed to examine the predictive power of achievement goals in online student test anxiety and help-seeking beyond self-efficacy and demographic differences. Achievement goals predicted online help-seeking differently from traditional classes. Students who endorsed other-avoidance or self-approach goals reported more help-seeking, while those with other-approach or self-avoidance goals reported less help-seeking. The study results and practical implications for online instruction and course design are discussed.

Cette étude examine l'utilité du nouveau modèle 3 × 2  des buts d’accomplissement à prédire l'anxiété au test et la demande d'aide de l’étudiant en ligne. Les buts d’accomplissement visent les buts généraux des étudiants pour participer à l'apprentissage et la norme par laquelle ils jugent leur accomplissement (Pintrich, 2000). Selon Elliot et ses collègues (2011), il existe six types de buts d’accomplissement en s’appuyant sur trois dimensions de la compétence (soi-, tâche-, et autrui-) et deux dimensions de valence (approche et évitement). L'échantillon comprenait 209 étudiants inscrits dans des classes d'enseignement à distance qui se sont portés volontaires pour l'étude. La régression hiérarchique distincte a été utilisée pour examiner le pouvoir prédictif des buts d’accomplissement de l’étudiant en ligne pour l'anxiété au test et la demande d'aide au-delà de l'auto-efficacité et des différences démographiques. Les buts d’accomplissement ont prédit la demande d'aide en ligne différemment de celle des classes traditionnelles. Les étudiants qui ont approuvé les buts autrui-évitement ou soi-approche ont signalé plus de demande d'aide, tandis que ceux avec les buts autrui-approche ou soi-évitement ont signalé moins de demande d'aide. Les résultats de l'étude et les implications pratiques pour l'enseignement en ligne et la conception de cours sont discutés.


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